Relation of Spinal Nerve Roots to Vertebrae

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Back/Neck Pain

Notes on Medicine/Surgery


  • SOCRATES ! (Woohooo)
    • Particularly, does it radiate down the arm or buttocks/thigh/leg (radiculopathy)
    • Gradual or sudden (concern of cauda equina)
    • Associated symptoms-
      • swelling (lymphadenopathy/cancer)
      • RED FLAGS e.g. young/old age; Fever; neck stiffness; saddle anaesthesia; bilateral sciatica; urinary dysfunction (incontinance or inability to pass urine)
    • Any sensory symptoms?
      • Dermatomal/nerve mapping
    • Any weakness/stiffness
      • Myotomal?
    • GALS Qs
      • Are you having difficulty using stairs/ getting dressed?
  • PMHx
    • History of cancer?
    • History of injury?
  • FHx
    • Cancer?
  • Social History
    • Occupation may be important


  • MSK/Neuro
    • Inspect
      • Back and neck (and arm/leg if involved) for deformity/wasting (from in front, side and behind)
    • Palpate
      • the spinal vertebrae and the spinal muscles laterally to them
      • check for any lymphadenopathy/neck lumps if concerned
    • Movement
      • Ask the patient to either
        • if back:- touch their toes and lean back (flexion and extension); check also lateral extension and rotation
          • check Schober’s test for forward flexion
            • mark 10cm above and 5cm below dimples…

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Notes on Anatomy and Physiology: Spinal Stenosis

Our most recent discussion concerned degenerative disc disease in the lumbar spine, a problem common to modern-day humans.

Given the many moving parts that make up the spine, it is not surprising that there are a number of causes for low back and leg pain. The spinal cord and its meningeal wrappings, the vertebrae themselves, the facet joints, and the ligaments, muscle, tendon and fascia that drape about the spine are all possible sources of mischief and discomfort.

Spinal stenosis causes pain that may seem similar to that of lumbar disc disease. But it affects posture and movement in very different ways. We’ll see that these dissimilarities necessarily alter our focus as we teach the Taoist Tai Chi™ internal arts of health.

The differing patterns of illness are always instructive. Encountering them

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Differentiating Homework Using Edmodo

Periods of Reflection

A tool that has simply transformed how my classroom operates is Edmodo. If you are unfamiliar with this platform do yourself a favor and follow this link. In short, Edmodo is a secure learning management system that can be used to form groups, share links, embed videos/projects, track progress, organize uploaded content, join support communities, share folders and resources, distribute parent codes, connect with others around the world, back channel, and so much more. Many teachers and students from around the world have dubbed it “Facebook for Education.” While I use Edmodo for many reasons in my daily routines, this post will only focus on differentiating homework using Edmodo.

How I Use Edmodo to Differentiate Homework:

Meeting the varied needs of students in any classroom is one of the most difficult aspects of teaching. Teachers work tirelessly gathering resources, analyzing data, collaborating with grade level peers, and connecting with…

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Shoulder Joint

Ed's MSK Anatomy

The shoulder joint is the most movable joint in the body. It includes the glenohumeral joint where the humerus articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula. SITS table The tendons of the SITS muscles (see above) help form the rotator cuff of the shoulder joint. All 4 muscles help provide stabilization of the humeral head with the glenoid fossa. SITS   Deltoid The anterior and posterior deltoid muscles are antagonistic to each other in all actions except abduction due to their different origins. (Anterior – FMHad) Deltoids

Teres Major


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Bone Stuff 💀🏥 (Because there’s too much info to have a pinpointed title)

Kourtnei's Anatomy and Physiology Blog 🙂

So in case you didn’t know what a bone is, there you go! 😉 You might even know what the bones do for the body. Even so, they are there for protection, support, movement, mineral storage, and blood cell formation. But I’ll bet you didn’t know that bones are classified into two categories and contain three categories of cartilage. There are axial bones and appendicular bones. Axial bones are bones located in the skull, vertebral, column, and rib cage. Appendicular bones are bones located in the upper and lower limbs, shoulder, and hip. To classify bones, we put them into categories based on their shape. Long bones (such as the numerous) are longer than they are wide. Short bones are cube-shaped and form with tendons (such as the wrist and ankle). Flat bones are thin, flat, and slightly curved (such as the sternum). Lastly, irregular bones are bones that have…

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Bone Stuff 💀🏥 (Because there’s too much info to have a pinpointed title)

via Bone Stuff 💀🏥 (Because there’s too much info to have a pinpointed title)

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